Every one of us is at risk for colorectal cancer. The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is about 1 in 20 (5%). Although the exact cause for the development of precancerous colon polyps that lead to colorectal cancer is not known, there are some factors that increase a person's risk of developing colorectal polyps and cancer. These risk factors include:
The risk of developing colorectal polyps and cancer increases as we age. Precancerous polyps are common in people over 50 and can affect 40% of people over the age of 60. Colorectal cancer that develops from precancerous polyps is usually seen in people over the age of 60. However, it can develop in younger people.
According to the American Cancer Society, the risk of developing colorectal cancer is slightly higher in men than in women.
You may be at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer if you drink alcohol, use tobacco, don't get enough exercise, and/or if you are overweight. Smoking increases the risk of precancerous polyps and colorectal cancer, as does obesity. A diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber, fruits and vegetables has been linked to a greater risk of developing colorectal cancer.
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There are a variety of polyps that can form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Precancerous polyps can turn into colorectal cancer. People with numerous polyps--including adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, or other types of polyps—often have a genetic predisposition to polyposis and colorectal cancer. These individuals should be managed differently than people with only 1 to 2 colorectal polyps.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis are conditions in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed. People with these conditions, when present for more than seven years and affecting a large portion of the colon, are at greater risk for developing colorectal cancer.
Research shows that some women who have a history of ovarian or uterine cancer, especially at a young age, have a somewhat increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Also, a person who already has had colorectal adenomas or cancer may develop the disease a second time.
As many as 1 in 5 people who develop colorectal cancer have other family members with the same disease. Sometimes colon cancer “runs in” families. This type of moderately increased cancer risk can be called a "familial colon cancer." When a person has hereditary cancer susceptibility, he or she has inherited a copy of a cancer susceptibility gene with a mutation. Individuals who inherit a mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene have a much greater chance for developing cancer. However, not everyone with a cancer susceptibility gene mutation will develop cancer. Genetic testing is available for all of these colorectal cancer syndromes.
Having one or more of these risk factors does not guarantee that you will develop colorectal cancer. However, you should talk about these risk factors with your doctor. He or she may be able to suggest ways to reduce your chances of developing colorectal cancer.
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This information is provided by the Cleveland Clinic and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition.
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