People with blood sugar levels higher than normal but lower than values for diabetes are considered to have pre-diabetes. Research shows that most people with pre-diabetes will develop Type 2 diabetes within 10 years.

Pre-diabetes puts you at risk for developing high blood pressure, and blood lipid disorders. Patients with pre-diabetes should have an annual medical checkup that includes blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids.

What is a blood glucose test?

A blood glucose test is a blood test that screens for diabetes by measuring the level of glucose (sugar) in a person’s blood. To get an accurate plasma glucose level, you must have fasted (not eaten) for at least 8-10 hours prior to the test.

Tests & Lab Value

Normal fasting blood sugar is between 3.9 – 5.5 mmol/L for people who do not have diabetes. A normal random blood sugar result is between 3.9 – 7.8. The diagnosis of pre-diabetes is made when two blood tests show that your fasting blood sugar level is between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L, or if two random (anytime) blood sugar tests are greater than or equal to 7.8, but below 11.1.

Fasting Glucose Level
Normal Les s than 5.6 mmol/L
Pre-Diabetes 5.6 – 6.9 mmol/L
Diabetes 7 or higher mmol/L
 

A1C
Normal Less than 5.6%
Pre-Diabetes 5.7-6.4%
Diabetes Greater than or equal to 6.5%


Random (Anytime) Glucose Test (X2)
Normal Less than 7.8 mmol/L
Pre-Diabetes 7.8 – 11.0 mmol/L
Diabetes Greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/L

Eat well

You can reduce your risk of Type 2 diabetes if you:

  • Always have a healthy breakfast
  • Have at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day
  • Control portions on your plate
  • Choose lean cuts of white meat, poultry with no skin and fish instead of processed meat
  • Choose unsaturated fats (olive oil, canola oil, corn oil, or sunflower oil) instead of saturated fats (butter, samna/ghee, animal fat, coconut oil or palm oil)
  • Grill, poach, steam or stir-fry (with little oil) your food instead of frying
  • Have nuts, a piece of fresh fruit or unsweetened yogurt as a snack
  • Drink water, unsweetened coffee or tea instead of fruit juice and full sugar soda

Keep active

Aim for about 30 minutes a day, at least five days a week. If you haven’t been very active recently, start out with five or 10 minutes a day. This can be increased every week. You can also split up your activity; try a brisk 10 minute walk three times each day. If you’re trying to lose weight, you may want to aim for more than 30 minutes a day.

Ways to get aerobic exercise:

  • Take a brisk walk every day
  • Take a dance aerobics class
  • Swim or do water aerobics
  • Take a bicycle ride outdoors or use a stationary bicycle indoors

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