Calcium is a mineral that the body needs to build strong bones and teeth. Calcium allows blood to clot normally, muscles and nerves to function properly, and the heart to beat nor¬mally. Most of the calcium in your body is found inside your bones.
What if I do not consume enough calcium?
A low calcium intake increases the rate of bone loss. If you do not consume enough calcium, your body begins to take calcium from your bones, decreasing your bone mass and putting you at risk for osteoporosis. Inadequate calcium intake may also increase blood pressure and increase your risk for high blood pressure.
How much calcium should I consume?
The following guidelines will help ensure that you are consuming enough calcium:
- Try to meet the recommended amounts of calcium each day (Recommended Dietary Allowances).
- Eating and drinking two to four servings of dairy products and calcium-rich foods a day will help ensure that you are getting enough calcium in your daily diet. Please refer to the table for examples of food sources of calcium.
- The best sources of calcium are dairy products, including milk, cheese, yogurt, and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond and soy milk. Calcium is also found in dark-green leafy vegetables, dried peas and beans, fish with bones, and calcium-fortified juices and cereals.
- Vitamin D will help your body use calcium. Some of your daily Vitamin D can be obtained through regular exposure to the sun. Vitamin D is found in: fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and swordfish, which are the best sources. Beef liver, cheese, mushrooms, and egg yolks provide small amounts. Most milk is fortified with vitamin D; however, foods made from milk, like cheese and ice cream, are usually not fortified. Vitamin D is added to many breakfast cereals and to some brands of orange juice, yogurt, margarine, and soy beverages; check the labels.
Reading food labels
The amount of calcium in a product is listed as percent of daily needs based on 1000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. To calculate the milligrams of calcium, just add a zero to the percent of calcium on the label. For example, if 1 cup of milk contains 30% of calcium needs, then it contains 300 milligrams of calcium. (See food label, below.)
How can I get enough calcium if I am lactose-intolerant?
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk. It causes cramping, gas, or diarrhea when dairy products are consumed. Lactose intolerance occurs because of the body’s lack of lactase, an enzyme needed to digest lactose.
Here are some suggestions to help you meet your calcium needs:
- Try consuming lactose-free milk, or calcium-fortified soy, almond, or rice milk.
- You may be able to tolerate certain dairy products that contain less milk sugar, including yogurt and cheese. Try lactose- free/low-lactose sliced cheese or cottage cheese, or lactose-free yogurt.
- Talk to your dietitian about other lactose-reduced products.
- Eat non-dairy foods that are good sources of calcium, such as broccoli, dried peas and beans, kale, collard, dark green leafy vegetables, canned salmon with soft bones, sardines, calcium-enriched fruit juice, blackstrap molasses, roasted almonds, and tofu processed with calcium.
Should I take a calcium supplement?
If you are having trouble consuming enough calcium-rich foods in your daily meal plan, talk to your physician and dietitian for suggestions. It is best to reach your calcium needs through food sources.
If calcium supplementation is indicated, the amount of calcium you will need from supplement depends on how much calcium you are consuming through food sources. Calcium supplements and some antacids containing calcium may complement an already healthy diet. Many multiple vitamin supplements contain a limited amount of calcium. Do not take calcium and iron supplements together.
Factors that optimize calcium absorption
Limit calcium supplements to 600 mg elemental calcium maximum at a time. Review the Nutrition Facts label, and review the serving size and amount of calcium that is provided for that serving size.
- One Calcium carbonate supplement typically provides 500-600 mg elemental calcium.
- One calcium citrate supplement typically provides 200-300 mg elemental calcium.
- Calcium carbonate is best absorbed when taken with food.
- Calcium citrate is best absorbed with or without food.
- Avoid taking calcium and iron supplements at the same time.
Sources of calcium
|Milk, cow’s, 1 cup (8 oz.)
|Milk alternatives, calcium-fortified, 8 oz. (1 cup)
|Yogurt, 6 oz. (3/4 cup)
Cheese, 28.34 g (1 oz.) (1 cubic inch or 1 slice)
Cottage cheese, 1 cup
Ricotta cheese, 1/2 cup
Cheese, grated, 1 Tbsp
|Pudding, 1/2 cup
|Ice-cream, 1/2 cup
|Labneh (spread) 2 Tblsp or low-fat milk drink
2)Vegetables and fruits
|Broccoli, chopped and cooked, 1 cup
|Kale, raw/cooked, 1 cup
|Mustard greens, cooked, 1 cup
|Collard/turnip greens/ spinach , cooked, 1 cup
|Juices, calcium-fortified, 177.44 ml (6 oz.)
|Tofu, processed with calcium, 1/2 cup
|Dried beans (soaked, cooked or canned), 1 cup
|Salmon, canned with bones, 85.04 g (3 oz.)
|Sardines, canned, with bones, 2 fish
|Dry cereal, calcium-fortified, ¾ - 1 cup
|Hot cereal, calcium-fortified, 1 cup
|English muffin, calcium enriched, 1 piece
5)Miscellaneous (nuts, seeds, etc.)
|Almonds, whole, 1/4 cup
|Sesame seeds, whole, dried, 1 Tb.
|Molasses, blackstrap, 1 Tb.